Much of current play therapy practice is based upon Virginia Axline’s
The basic principles recommend that the therapist:
- Must develop a warm and friendly relationship with the child.
- Accepts the child as she or he is.
- Establishes a feeling of permission in
the relationship so that the child feels free to express his or her
- Is alert to recognise the feelings the
child is expressing and reflects these feelings back in such a manner
that the child gains insight into his/her behaviour.
- Maintains a deep respect for the child’s
ability to solve his/her problems and gives the child the opportunity
to do so. The responsibility to make choices and to institute change
is the child’s.
- Does not attempt to direct the child’s
actions or conversations in any manner. The child leads the way, the
- Does not hurry the therapy along. It is
a gradual process and must be recognised as such by the therapist.
- Only establishes those limitations necessary to anchor the therapy to
the world of reality and to make the child aware of his/her
responsibility in the relationship.
These principles emphasise the
importance of a practitioner being able to use a comprehensive
which will enable the therapist to follow the
*Axline was influenced by the
person centred approach of Carl Rogers. She is recognised as the
originator of non directive Play Therapy. Her well known book 'Dibs: In
Search of Self' written in 1964 which describes how she worked with Dibs and how he was
able to heal himself over a period of time is an excellent introduction to
the subject. Axline in turn influenced Violet Oaklander who
added a gestalt therapy approach to play therapy and extended the
'tool-kit' concept as described in her book 'Windows to Our Children'.